Tantra has been labelled as the "yoga of ecstasy", driven by senseless ritualistic libertinism. David Gray disagrees with broad generalizations and states that defining Tantra is a difficult task because "Tantra traditions are manifold, spanning several religious traditions and cultural worlds. As a result they are also diverse, which makes it a significant challenge to come up with an adequate definition". According to Georg Feuerstein , "The scope of topics discussed in the Tantras is considerable.
The term "tantrism" is a 19th-century European invention not present in any Asian language;  compare " Sufism ", of similar Orientalist origin. According to Padoux, "Tantrism" is a Western term and notion, not a category that is used by the so-called "Tantrists" themselves.
Robert Brown similarly notes that "tantrism" is a construct of Western scholarship , not a concept of the religious system itself. It is a system, adds Brown, that gives each follower the freedom to mix Tantric elements with non-Tantric aspects, to challenge and transgress any and all norms, experiment with "the mundane to reach the supramundane".
Teun Goudriaan in his review of Hindu Tantrism, states that Tantrism usually means a "systematic quest for salvation or spiritual excellence" by realizing and fostering the divine within one's own body, one that is simultaneous union of the masculine-feminine and spirit-matter, and has the ultimate goal of realizing the "primal blissful state of non-duality".
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Tantrism is an overarching term for "Tantric traditions", states David Gray in a review, that combine Vedic, yogic and meditative traditions from ancient Hinduism as well as rival Buddhist and Jain traditions. While Goudriaan's description is useful, adds Gray, there is no single defining universal characteristic common to all Tantra traditions, being an open evolving system.
The Tantrika, to Bhatta, is that literature which forms a parallel part of the Hindu tradition, independent of the Vedic corpus. One of the key differences between the Tantric and non-Tantric traditions — whether it be orthodox Buddhism, Hinduism or Jainism — is their assumptions about the need for monastic or ascetic life. These orthodox traditions teach renunciation of householder life, a mendicant's life of simplicity and leaving all attachments to become a monk or nun. In contrast, the Tantrika traditions hold, states Robert Brown, that "both enlightenment and worldly success" are achievable, and that "this world need not be shunned to achieve enlightenment".
According to David Lorenzen, it describes munis sages experiencing Tantra-like "ecstatic, altered states of consciousness" and gaining the ability "to fly on the wind". The two oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism, the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad in section 4. David Gordon White views Yogini cults as foundational to early tantra but disputes scholars who see their roots in an "autochthonous non-Vedic source" such indigenous tribes or the Indus Valley Civilization. Ayurveda has primarily been an empirical practice with Vedic roots, but Tantra has been an esoteric, folk movement without grounding that can be traced to anything in Atharvaveda or any other vedic text.
A series of artwork discovered in Gandhara, in modern-day Pakistan, dated to be from about 1st century AD, show Buddhist and Hindu monks holding skulls. One of them shows the Buddha sitting in the center, and on one side sits a Buddhist monk and on the other side sits a Hindu monk. The Mahabharata , the Harivamsa , the Devi Mahatmya in the Markandeya Purana all contain references to the fierce, demon-killing manifestations of the Great Goddess, Mahishamardini , who is identified with Durga-Parvati.
According to Flood, the earliest date for the Tantra texts related to Tantric practices is AD , though most of them were probably composed after the 8th century onwards. According to Flood, very little is known about who created the Tantras, nor much is known about the social status of these and medieval era Tantrikas.
According to this theory, these practitioners would have invited their deities to avesha mam enter me , then reverted the role in order to control that deity and gain its power. The early Tantric practices in Indian history are sometimes attributed to the Kapalikas literally, "skull men", also called Somasiddhatins or Mahavartins.
These early historical mentions are in passing and appear to be Tantra-like practices, they are not detailed nor comprehensive presentation of Tantric beliefs and practices. Epigraphic references to the Kaulas Tantric practices are rare. Reference is made in the early 9th century to vama left-hand Tantras of the Kaulas. Tantra probably gained traction after 6th century, post- Gupta Empire era. Major Tantric texts had been written by the 10th century, particularly in Kashmir, Nepal and Bengal.
By the 10th or 11th century, Tantric texts had been translated into regional languages such as Tamil, and Tantric practices probably had spread across South Asia. Tantrism has been so pervasive that all of Hinduism after the eleventh century, perhaps with the exception of the vedic Srauta tradition , is influenced by it.
All forms of Saiva , Vaisnava and Smarta religion, even those forms which wanted to distance themselves from Tantrism, absorbed elements derived from the Tantras. The 13th-century Dvaita Vedanta philosopher Madhvacharya wrote copious commentaries on then existing major schools of Indian philosophies and practices, and cited the works of the 10th century Abhinavagupta considered as a major and influential Tantra scholar.
The early 20th-century Indian scholar Pandurang Vaman Kane conjectured that Madhvacharya ignored Tantra because it may have been considered scandalous. In contrast, Padoux suggests that Tantra may have been so pervasive by the 13th century that "it was not regarded as being a distinct system. The Tantra texts and tantric practices involve a wide range of topics, mostly focused on spiritual topics, and not of a sexual nature. However, states Gavin Flood, Tantrism is more known in the West as being notorious for its antinomian elements, stereotypically portrayed as a practice that is esoteric eroticism and ritualized sex in the name of religion, one imbued with alcohol and offering of meat to fierce deities.
Jayanta Bhatta , the 9th-century scholar of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy and who commented on Tantra literature, stated that the Tantric ideas and spiritual practices are mostly well placed, but it also has "immoral teachings" such as by the so-called "Nilambara" sect where its practitioners "wear simply one blue garment, and then as a group engage in unconstrained public sex" on festivals.
He wrote, this practice is unnecessary and it threatens fundamental values of society. Sexuality has been a part of Tantric practices, sexual fluids have been viewed as "power substances" and used ritualistically. Some extreme texts, states Flood, go further such as the Buddhist text Candamaharosana-tantra advocating consumption of bodily waste products as "power substances", teaching the waste should be consumed as a diet "eaten by all the Buddhas" without slightest disgust.
In the Kaula tradition and others where sexual fluids as power substances and ritual sex are mentioned, scholars disagree in their translations, interpretations and practical significance. Douglas Renfrew Brooks, for example, states that the antinomian elements such as the use of intoxicating substances and sex were not animistic, but were adopted in some Kaula traditions to challenge the Tantric devotee to break down the "distinctions between the ultimate reality of Brahman and the mundane physical and mundane world".
By combining erotic and ascetic techniques, states Brooks, the Tantric broke down all social and internal assumptions, became Shiva-like. In most Hindu and Buddhist Tantra texts, extreme forms of sexual ritualism is absent. In Jain tantric text, this is entirely absent. Kama and sex is another aspect of life and a "root of the universe", in the Tantric view, whose purpose extends beyond procreation and is another means to spiritual journey and fulfillment.
Kama is the root of the world's existence.
Rituals are the main focus of the Tantras. Because of the wide range of communities covered by the term, it is problematic to describe tantric practices definitively.
Lorenzen, Tantra practices include the following: . A number of techniques sadhana are used as aids for meditation and achieving spiritual power : . According to David Gordon White , mandalas are a key element of Tantra. The mandala is a mesocosm, which mediates between the "transcendent-yet-immanent" macrocosm and the microcosm of mundane human experience. The godhead is both transcendent and immanent, and the world is regarded as real, and not as an illusion. The goal is not to transcend the world, but to realize that the world is the manifestation of the godhead, while the "I" is "the supreme egoity of the godhead.
The words mantram , tantram and yantram are rooted linguistically and phonologically in ancient Indian traditions. Mantram denotes the chant, or "knowledge. Yantram denotes the means by which a person is expected to lead their life. The mantra and yantra are instruments to invoke higher qualities, often associated with specific Hindu deities such as Shiva, Shakti, or Kali. Similarly, puja may involve focusing on a yantra or mandala associated with a deity. Each mantra is associated with a specific Nyasa. Nyasa involves touching various parts of the body at specific parts of the mantra, thought to invoke the deity in the body.
The deities are internalised as attributes of Ishta devata meditations , with practitioners visualizing themselves as the deity or experiencing the darshan vision of the deity. During meditation the initiate identifies with any of the Hindu gods and goddesses, visualising and internalising them in a process similar to sexual courtship and consummation. In Hindu Tantra, uniting the deity and the devotee uses meditation and ritual practices.
These practices are divided among three classes of devotees: the animal, heroic, and the divine. In the divine devotee, the rituals are internal. The divine devotee is the only one who can attain the object of the rituals awakening energy. The Tantra texts of the Vaishnava tradition are the Pancharatra , and typically called the Agamas in the Shaiva traditions. The term "Tantra" in Hindu genre of literature is usually used specifically to refer to Shakta Agamas. Some Tantra texts in Hinduism are Vedic and others non-Vedic.
The means of worship in the Hindu Tantric practice differs from the Vedic form. While the Vedic practice of yajna there are no idols and shrines, in its Tantric traditions, idols and symbolic icons with puja are the means of worship. Tirumular , for example, explained their link as, "the Vedas are the path, and the Agamas are the horse". Each Tantra-Agama text consists of four parts:  . The Tantra-Agama texts of Hinduism present a diverse range of philosophies, ranging from theistic dualism to absolute monism. According to Alexis Sanderson, various classes of Vajrayana literature developed as a result of royal courts sponsoring both Buddhism and Saivism.
The Jain worship methods, states Ellen Gough, were likely influenced by Shaktism ideas, and this is attested by the tantric diagrams of the Rishi-mandala where the Tirthankaras are portrayed. The first Western scholar to seriously study Tantra was John Woodroffe — , who wrote about Tantra under the pen name Arthur Avalon and is known as the "founding father of Tantric studies". All three saw Tantra as "the most transgressive and violent path to the sacred". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Tantric Buddhism, see Vajrayana.
For the texts classified as Tantras, see Tantras. Esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Scriptures and texts. Festivals and temples. Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers. Other texts. Text classification. Other topics. Tantrism Mahasiddha Sahaja. Buddhahood Bodhisattva Kalachakra. Thinkers since ancient Greece, if not before, have found themselves obsessed with the true nature of the senses; even modern philosophers get tripped up discussing qualia, the irreducible stuff of consciousness.
Subjectivity is hard to isolate, by definition, and examples of new metaphysical sensations are not exactly a regular occurrence. Synesthesia, often experienced as associating numbers with colors, is one of the rare examples. Though individuals since at least the 19th century have reported tasting words, seeing sound or hearing colors, it took until the s for scientists to prove that the shared experience actually correlated with real, observable activity in the brain. Thanks to the internet, A. Like synesthesia, it was first discovered by way of individual reports.
Unlike synesthesia, it has not depended on brain imaging for cultural acceptance. All these YouTube users may be right that the feeling is real, but the scientific research still lags far behind. Craig Richard, a professor of physiology at Shenandoah University in Virginia, first heard the term in , on a podcast. Just as he went to turn the podcast off, the subject changed to the painter Bob Ross — by then, a well known A. In childhood, he spent afternoons watching Ross paint landscapes on TV. He remembered caring more about the painter than the painting. It was the sounds he made and the way he talked — the way he looked in the camera.
When the episode was over, Richard went to his computer to look up the research on A. At that point, he found nothing academic — only websites and forums that led him to the Facebook group.
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He reached out to Allen, and in collaboration with a graduate student and member of the community named Karissa Burnett, they conducted an informal online survey that, over time, has received more than 25, voluntary responses. Where do you feel tingles? Head, neck, arm? Do you feel relaxed?
Do you feel aroused? Richard also started ASMR University , an online archive that today remains a useful clearinghouse of research on the topic. Still, scientific understanding has moved slowly. Funding for A. More than half of these were published in author-pay journals. The most rigorous studies use f. Outcomes have suggested, in very small samples, that A. Richard, for his part, considers these outcomes from an evolutionary-biology perspective. He believes that the tingles of A. In adulthood, a range of similar behaviors contribute to intimacy between mates.
This may be the case, but our current understanding still leaves behind more questions than answers: If A. Why should it come to our attention only now? It does not seem very likely that the pace and scope of research will ever catch up to the cycle of new content. For now, our chief authorities on A. Like many teenagers these days, she often had trouble falling asleep. Sometimes she would sneak her phone into her room and watch YouTube videos to relax her mind.
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This habit evolved by a haphazard process, led by the whims of an infinite sidebar. Makeup tutorials segued to massage, which soon gave way to A. Since that fateful discovery, Gibi has watched A. The ritual followed her off to college, where the videos became a kind of white noise while she studied. The genre had begun to find broader appeal as a sleep aid, an alternative to guided meditation and a drug-free, online version of Xanax. The medium had developed its own microstars, women with handles like Gentle Whispering ASMR and ASMRrequests , who filmed themselves crinkling paper, tapping their nails on large wooden bowls, dealing cards, brushing hair and pouring cold milk into bowls of Cocoa Krispies.
In one, Heather administered a colorblindness test, tapping her wand on a laminated chart. In another, she played as a tattoo artist, trying on a pair of purple nitrile gloves. At that point, in June , many A. Across channels, production value varied wildly. A creator might post the perfect tapping video, then disappear from the site forever.
Gibi thought that maybe, with regular effort, she could produce a better product — a quality channel with a regular schedule that tested out new, creative triggers on a regular basis. Six months after graduation, she was earning enough in ad revenue to treat it as her full-time job. Today she has about 1. Our plan was to shop for some tingly props — any little odd or end that might yield good, recordable sound.
Gibi was in town for a public appearance. Ellen DeGeneres, bowling ball-versus-bulletproof glass, ramen, iPhone stuff. If most entertainment aims to shock or delight, then A.
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Sleeping fans tend to leave videos running — a boon on a platform that pays dividends for view length. In this way, for Gibi, the most valuable engagement is actually a near-total lack of engagement. Even when viewers stay awake, straightforward entertainment remains somewhat beside the point.
We entered the store to the whir of air-conditioning. Gibi made a beeline toward a rack of piggy banks. The lacquer made a dainty, plinking sound, like the loose filament of a shaken, burned-out light bulb. She moved on to rustle a strand of orange tinsel, then brushed her hand against the grain of a vellum birthday card.
We turned down an aisle of fake plastic swords. Gibi is the LeBron James of touching stuff. She touches things professionally. As she paused to fondle a makeup brush, I heard the grip of her finger pads reluctant to give up the cellophane wrapper. When she smoothed the fleece of a microfiber towel, I cringed at the drag of rough callus against terry cloth. My skin tingled all over and it felt hot. Our bodies moved in unison; Martin lunged forward as I braced myself for every thrust.
His cock went in deep, and he held it there, before sliding out, but left the cockhead inside. My ass muscles automatically spasmed in delight and I relaxed so he could pump again. In and out, he stroked, slowly, and my eyes opened for a few seconds, long enough Just one more assignment left and the final exam. The students are filing in slowly Tommy and I were both in our late teens. Drying off my sexy body and slipped on a red thong and bra, I made my way to the kitchen.
After cleaning up the kitchen and a load of laundry, I dressed and put my choice of sex clothes in the saddlebag. I drove to the Her head flung back against the lift as she pressed the button for the fifth floor and it was with relief that she opened the door to her apartment, poured herself a glass of chilled white wine and headed to the veranda to suck in the cold breeze from the shore. Before beginning this story, it is necessary to provide some background information so that the reader understands something of the creatures that form the antagonists of this tale.
An Incubus plural Incubi is a male demonic spirit that drains the sexual energy from his sleeping female victims through intercourse. Nervous whistleblower Tom needs to relax to speak to the school board. Perry is ready to help. Tom paced the floor of his small apartment, running his fingers through his closely cropped hair. Perry said.
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Renata texted Shaye first. Just a hello since he had given her his number. But he asked her for platonic details of her sexual preferences. And then, if she would be open to a romp here and there. Shaye leaned closer and replied, his glowing eyes Trudging into the bathroom, I flick the switch. Another dream. Steadying myself against the cool ceramic sink, eyes blurry, still exhausted, I try to focus on the figure in the mirror. Heartbreak is written with a single tear sliding down my cheek. When my eyes close I see hers, Katherine has seen her share of trouble in life. Now, she's on the mend.
Or so she thinks. Garden of Eden Therapy Center: "And remember, it works if you work it. Say it with me, everyone. It works if you work it. It works if you work it After the meeting ended, she trudged She had to hold the dress down against her legs when the breeze shifted to gust. The dress was white, mostly white, red trim on the edges; creamy candy cane, but rung with vanilla and cherry; and her fingernails were painted dark blue and the tone of her skin was a tanned olive, and her hand began to release the dress but the gust came again and this time the dress escaped and her act of He was cold.
He was naked. He was stiff and sore. He was in a bathtub. Uncoiling himself was a process. He caught a whiff of himself and recoiled. What had happened? He reached over and started working the pump. In sputtering bursts seawater came flowing into the tub. There is no way of telling which girl you meet is a slut and those that are not.
Some are cute like Barbie, some act like a princess, others are shy or wear nerdy glasses. Most don't advertise their lust. Occasionally, you meet a girl where the odds are in a guy's favor. Trish was one of those and every guy sitting around her knew it. Seated in the bleacher seats at Wrigley Field in POV: Josh "Seriously, man, what the hell was going on last night?
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