AMC usually does this very heavy-handedly by having the bad girl raped. The last of the major characters, upon whose axis Pine Valley turns, is Brooke English- an even more extreme example of the classic put-upon heroine than Dixie. Always greater than the characters have been the storylines. AMC- the feminine soap- has always had its characters serve the story.
General Hospital is the masculine counterpart to AMC. His paramour was another archetype: bad girl-cum-good Laura Baldwin- who left her husband Scotty for Luke- the man who you guessed it raped her. Whereas Luke was an antihero, Scorpio was a classic hero. Robert Scorpio lasted a decade on the show before his early 90s exit. The actor, Tristan Rogers, who portrayed him became as big a star as Tony Geary.
His employer was another male stereotype- a Mafia boss named Sonny Corinthos played by the excellent Maurice Benard- who had played a major character named Nico Kelly on AMC in the 80s. Every Thanksgiving the clan orders pizza instead of turkey. Lila is probably the most beloved character on the show- if not all US soapdom as played by British Anna Lee. Bradley had a son named Justus whose clan was briefly on the show, but the character was never fully developed. The other Quartermaine grandchildren have been developed. She has 2 older brothers- Jason, who was a good guy gone wrong after a car accident by alcoholic AJ caused irreparable brain damage.
His plans almost always fail. He is the archetypal Charlie Brown. She hooked up with another GH castoff, Kevin Collins- a shrink. He was the twin brother ahem of Dr. This archetype has been exploited by GH several times to great effect. A few years earlier another serial killer stalked GH. Ever the hero, Robert saved the day. But, in truth, GH is character driven. As example, all 3 of the psycho killer characters were originally short-term characters that took off.
As popular as some of the female characters have been it is the archetypal male component that has kept GH popular. But are not there LCD things that sink below the expected? The unexpected, or the Unexplained? Apparently they are changes in the constellation of psychic dominants, of the archetypes, or 'gods' as they used to be called, which bring about, or accompany, long-lasting transformations of the collective psyche.
The angels were represented by archetypal blond humanoid aliens Blonds or Nordics who were coming to earth to warn humanity of its propensity for destruction. But, this archetype was mainly an American phenomenon. Elsewhere, the UFO archetype was less focused- all sorts of weird monsters were seen in the presence of these levitating disks. Other countries reported gigantic aliens, aliens less than a foot tall, in all hues, some with tentacles, elephantine trunks, multiple mouths, eyes, etc.
In a time of changing mores many different archetypes emerged- if 1 can call the all-over-the-physiognomous map aliens archetypes. Of course, I am referring to the Abduction phenomenon. Earlier claims of contact were somehow revised on the fly to retrofit the new archetype. But, recent years have seen the Gray Abductors influence on the phenomenon fade. Allen Hynek, were soon hijacked by a man who would reap millions in book sales. The most recent of this cultic wave has been the crop circle phenomenon.
It also tied in to the recurring scientific theory of cosmic Panspermia. The Seth books played into the idea of gods not just seeding the earth, but fathering humanity. These insidious conflations of the absurd with cutting edge science proved very effective. The Philadelphia Experiment is the classic appeal to invisibility, admixed with Manhattan Project-style jargon.
It also ties into previous paranoid mindsets involving Rosicrucians, Jewish bankers, the Illuminati, the Vatican, Prester John, Nostradamus. The cattle mutilation cult dovetailed ancient ritual superstitions with the modern fears of genetic sampling- possibly for cloning or eugenics. But 2 other Unexplained phenomena did. The 1 st was the Life After Death field. But, its subsequent lack of scientific paraphernalia left it unable to displace ufology as the dominant LCD appeal to disreason- at least in the USA.
This is the study of cryptids- or mythic creatures. It is a close relative to exobiology the study of extraterrestrial life- currently an inactive field, save for the true believers in flying saucers. They have avoided us for eons. Like many other psi fields, backdating is rampant, as is hoaxing. Especially in the case of sasquatch it seems that American folklorists wanted to Americanize the Asiatic wildmen- a direct descendant of the mythic character Enkidu from Gilgamesh. Note how this dovetails with the s tv craze with Westerns. The other rival camp in cryptozoology is that of water monsters.
The most notable, of course, is the Loch Ness Monster Nessie. Lawrence basin Larrys? Again, this invokes Leviathan, dragons, dinosaurs, etc. Given that these deep bodies of water are virtually unexplored, these creatures fill our archetypal human need to populate the Void- be it with surviving post-K-T plesiosaurs or mososaurs, ancient whales, giant eels, or snakes. But neither camp has been able to get science to validate its views. The idea that ancient humans or dinosaurs survived extinction plays right into the same arenas of the human psyche that the Life After Death crowd does- except on a grander level.
The most recent boon to this field has been the recent discovery of new large creatures that inhabit deep ocean trenches. Similarly frustrating to validate have been cryptids that do not fit into the hairy biped nor water monster categories. Also, included in the cryptid category is that specialty of Charles Fort, himself: strange rainfalls- usually of small animals: frogs, fish, rodents, grasshoppers, rotting flesh, squirrels, lizards, etc. All the claims are very weak. In fact, success in pop music almost invariably depends upon the music transcending the lyrics. The truly inventive lyricist- like a Jim Morrison, Paul Simon, or Fred Durst- fares better, but even those lyrics make for shoddy poems if read without the music.
This is a group with undoubted LCD appeal. But, they were better than the above parenthesized bands because their early period was the best: harmonies which rivaled or surpassed the best Motown offered, short pungent hard rocking melodies, occasionally laced with deeper ideas. But most of the songs were very well-constructed musically. Their virtues were evident. But, the group was still locked into the appeal of white middle class teenaged boys.
This was a formula for success pioneered with the mids mega-selling album Frampton Comes Alive! Urgent- a disco-tinged rocker with a little brass thrown in. The rest of the album was a mixed bag, but the die was cast- never would the band rock as hard as on Juke Box Hero or Night Life. Their next album would retain the sap of 4, but discard the hard-edge. The rest of the album was similarly mawkish, yet despite the 1 hit, the whole album did not do as well as 4.
Moonlight buried them. My contention is that Foreigner is recalled in rock circles, if at all, because of its early period which had musical elements that dug into the collective psyche of a small part of society, yet avoided the sell-out aspects of its later dreck- which was more across-the-board popular in the short run, but now dismissed in the long run. Pop music, like wrestling, appeals to the LCD tastes of its times by crafting its appeal over a wide spectrum. Note, as well, that almost all those times were iffy economic times. Note, as well, the correspondence to economic booms most of these phat musical times coincided with.
Yet, musical excellence tends to bear little relation to the financial cycles. It lacks the fluctuations, at least creatively, that pop music endures. Consequently, its fan base is much more hardcore than the relatively diverse base of acts your average pop music fan follows. In other words, a fan of wrestler A is far less likely to switch allegiance to wrestler B than a fan of pop act A is to drop them for pop act B.
This is probably due to there being so much pop music out there that unlike tv shows pop acts really can only capture their times- not transcend it. This limits most acts. Yes, there are exceptions- like the Grateful Dead. So, most pop music embodies its times- lest it not be pop? Is this a Jenny Jones Show panel- or what? Their dozen or so year run was relatively brief- especially compared with acts like the Rolling Stones, Diana Ross, Pink Floyd, etc.
Cold As Ice uses this technique to achieve a different end- just as memorably. The hiss also hints at the disdain felt by the lamenter. The song also has a ferociously warbly synthesized bridge section which wobbles its way louder, curiously mimicking the possible inner lack of confidence of a runaway. The 3 hits from Double Vision were also reinforced archetypes. Hot Blooded is the archetypal entreaty to a lover, where the wooer sings his praises. Of course, this is King Kongian breast-beating!
For years now the debate in the scholarly communication community about the future of open has been divisive and acrimonious, which has left many with the impression that there is an utter lack of common ground on key issues and no hope for collaborative solutions. In all, the overwhelming majority of respondents support reform toward a world with more open although not necessarily global, immediate or total reform. If these opinions are reflective of the broader stakeholder community then there is a lot of common ground about at least the sentiments of Plan S.
The devil is in the details of course, but these details—these specific plans and policies—can and should be worked out by the scholarly communication community. Some possible areas of common ground are identified in table 3. This point is key. Detailed common ground solutions can only be developed and cultivated by all stakeholders in scholarly communication working together.
Indeed, the scholarly communication landscape is so complex that only the entire community working together can arrive at the right solutions. If we are all sincere about this sentiment, we should bring this symphony of voices into the planning process as a first step and only then start working together to unlock the promise and potential of open. From this vantage, Plan S can be an important bridge to the future.
Finally, this same sentiment should apply not only to developing the details of our new plan for the future of global open, but to improving our understanding of the open landscape as well. Our devotion to this landscape is incredibly rich common ground. We owe it to ourselves, to research, and to society to begin exploring this common ground together. This is a fast-moving issue. A taskforce put together by Plan S organizers issued implementation guidance for the plan in late November see the Plan S website. Public comment closed on February 8, In other news:.
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The following resources are cited in this body of this report, but these represent only a portion of the resources OSI has reviewed:. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Leave this field empty. The OSI Policy Perspectives series offers broad, common ground perspectives on key issues in scholarly communication. Each report summarizes the current state of a particular issue and what we know about it, and also attempts to articulate the perspectives and lessons of experience from all stake- holder groups in scholarly communication on this issue particularly but not exclusively as expressed in OSI conversations and identify what common ground might exist for building broadly acceptable policy.
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OSI is not a democratic body that speaks with one voice on any particular issue. Trying to reconcile the views, intentions, and motivations of all the different actors, communities and groups in the scholarly communication space—which are very rarely entirely aligned—is challenging.
We acknowledge, therefore, that these reports may be and in fact, probably are an imperfect reflection of the many perspectives and ideas in this group. The fact that these reports sometimes need to be published in a rush, in response to policy commenting deadlines and other pressures only makes this imperfection more likely.
We also acknowledge, however, that OSI often considers a wider range of perspectives than established policy making bodies in scholarly communication, and that our relative strength is showcasing this range of perspectives and noting how they differ, and importantly, how they share common ground. To this end, we hope it is valuable to produce these reports, however imperfect, and share them with the scholarly communication community and beyond. OSI policy perspectives are under constant review and are updated periodically as merited. The version here is the most recent.
Previous versions are linked at the bottom of this page. Comments can be submitted via this page, or emailed to policy osiglobal. The Open Scholarship Initiative. Figure 2B: How much open is there by type of open? In particular, Jon, Rick and Rob each wrote several paragraphs. Thanks as well to several others in OSI who reviewed this report but are not named here. Funders, however, have no privileged input into OSI policy deliberations apart from being equal members of the OSI community. OSI has many voices contributing to documents such as this, and endeavors to maintain an inclusive and balanced perspective on scholarly communication issues.
Also, the findings and recommendations expressed herein also do not necessarily reflect the opinions of contributors, or individual OSI participants, alumni, or observers, or any institutions, trustees, officers, or staff affiliated with these individuals. The DOI of the first public version of this document 1st ed.
Open Scholarship Initiative. Except where otherwise noted, this article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. About the author. Glenn Hampson is the executive director of the Science Communication Institute sci. Prev Next. Leave a Reply Cancel Reply. OSI Brief: How fast is open growing? An overview of the Plan S debate. Create a broad plan to improve open Create publishing standards to improve quality Improve small publisher capacity, resources Improve infrastructure Ensure preservation Improve transparency Address impact factors Make the system more cost efficient.
After 1 January scientific publications on the results from research funded by public grants provided by national and European research councils and funding bodies, must be published in compliant Open Access Journals or on compliant Open Access Platforms. OSI broadly supports all open initiatives that are testing and exploring ways to improve open.
As a regional plan specific to the EU, OSI participants have been less inclined to comment; the EU has tried a number of regional approaches for years.
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Authors retain copyright of their publication with no restrictions. In all cases, the license applied should fulfil the requirements defined by the Berlin Declaration;. Agreed, but also consider more flexibility here going forward. Free to read vs. What if we stick to our ideals about reuse—continuing to strive for and reward CC-BY—but at the same time allow ourselves more flexibility in the here and now and take a broader approach to open, acknowledging that many types of open have emerged over the last 20 years?
Over time, we can improve OA education and advocacy, open data requirements and use, and more, and also let these newly open instruments develop a critical mass, a greater following, value-added components, best practices, and so on, such that being more invested in open including free to reuse clearly makes sense to researchers and increasing the degree of open is in their best interest.
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The Funders will ensure jointly the establishment of robust criteria and requirements for the services that compliant high quality Open Access journals and Open Access platforms must provide;. This idea is important and valuable, but instead of having these requirements emanate from funders, consider instead creating a global, representative working group to develop the compliance standards required by this plan, and make this group accountable to an international body like UNESCO or create a new body for this purpose.
In addition, consider helping the global publishing industry develop collaborative plans and structures so it can police its own similar to insurance industry groups, NISO, etc. In case such high quality Open Access journals or platforms do not yet exist, the Funders will, in a coordinated way, provide incentives to establish and support them when appropriate; support will also be provided for Open Access infrastructures where necessary;.
Instead, invest a significant amount in improving open infrastructure and publisher capacity building. Where applicable, Open Access publication fees are covered by the Funders or universities, not by individual researchers; it is acknowledged that all scientists should be able to publish their work Open Access even if their institutions have limited means;.
This sentiment seems broadly acceptable. However, whether it can actually translated into workable policy is a question that needs to be investigated. Many researchers and their institutions have very limited means. These capacity gaps are poorly understood. Also, investigate the capacity of Research4Life to expand subscription access in the global south since they only provide access to institutions and it is difficult for individuals not located at institutions like clinicians to gain access and if this program needs more money, provide it.
When Open Access publication fees are applied, their funding is standardised and capped across Europe ;. Carefully research the APC price controls idea before implementing it or drop this idea altogether if indicated. Market signals will drive some APCs higher and some lower; artificially flattening these signals may lead to choice distortions and unintended consequences. The Funders will ask universities, research organisations, and libraries to align their policies and strategies, notably to ensure transparency;.
Policy alignment should of course happen in an ideal world. In reality, incentives will probably need to be aligned before policies can be aligned. In this case, Plan S will probably need to prove itself first before it gets broad buy-in, but it can also help achieve this buy-in by asking researchers to help develop the plan. As for improving transparency, this is a key goal of Plan S. Even though the suggested method of achieving this i. The above principles shall apply to all types of scholarly publications, but it is understood that the timeline to achieve Open Access for monographs and books may be longer than 1 January ;.
A key lesson from OSI discussions has been that one-size-fits-all approaches do not work in scholarly communications. While the temptation to leave difficult solutions for the humanities and social sciences until later is understandable, truly workable global solutions to scholarship should try to address everything from the outset. The importance of open archives and repositories for hosting research outputs is acknowledged because of their long-term archiving function and their potential for editorial innovation;.
Pre-print servers are increasingly popular and valuable and may portend the future of scholarly communication. All preprint servers should be accepted and innovation in this space encouraged see also the comment about principle 2 with regard to letting the international community design new standards instead of funders.
Application Questions form HCF and LCM:
Hybrid costs are a concern. So too are subscription costs and open costs. Cost concerns clearly need to be addressed, somehow.
Maybe we can we be more creative here, like using compliance incentives—offering more funding for open publishing, or rewards to authors and institutions who publish more open? Sections 9, 10 and 11 of the Plan S technical guidance document contains detailed recommendations on future publishing guidelines, transition plans, and more.
Some possible areas of common ground with regard to technical guidance are noted to the right. Otherwise, loosen the technical compliance requirements for publishers and instead, broadly support the development of international systems and standards for helping the scholarly communication system regulate itself and provide for capacity-building, training, and support a supranational group that can draw from organizations like COPE, DOAJ, WAME, COASP and others Encourage the use of DOIs as permanent identifiers and find cost-effective means to implement DOIs for global south journals Require robust, long-term digital preservation or archiving programs—ideally, however, programs that share a common end-point and do not simply scatter the scholarly record into dozens of disconnected archives which do not communicate with each other—and find cost-effective means for global south journals to participate in these programs.
Require publishing in full-text in machine readable format and find cost-effective means by which global south journals can do so. Plan S is silent on a number of focus areas that OSI supports. These areas are listed to the right. Invest a significant amount in open education and outreach. The author maintains a fluent pace with the storyline. Jun 02, Bella rated it it was amazing.
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